Ɗemɗe Afriknaaje: Hol heen ɓurɗe yaajde to bannge saraade e heewde haalooɓe?


He nder Afrik ko ene ɓura ujjunnaaje ɗiɗi (2000) ɗemngal ene tawee heen. Hay ɗuum ne tawa en limaani heen ɗemɗe koɗe naatɗe he jookdu nduu he ujunanɗe ɗiɗi jawtude ɗee, ko wayno ɗemɗe tuubakooɓe (farayse, engele, purtugees, españool e Afrikaans), Arabeere, walla ɗemɗe maleyo-polonisiyankeeje ko wayno Malgaas, Bushpuri walla Urdu.
Eɗen nganndi noon wonaa ɗemɗe Afriknaaje ɗee fof ngoni jaajɗe walla ɗe yimɓe heewɓe kaalata. Won heen boom ko haalata ɗum en ɓuraani ujunere (1000) neɗɗo, kadi tawa ko he diiwaan gooto he nder leydi ngootiri tan joom mum en tawatee. Won e ɗemɗe Afriknaaje noon ko jaajɗe kadi cariiɗe he nder leyɗeele keewɗe ceertuɗe. Pulaar/Fulfulde ko e ɗeen jeyaa.
To bannge yaajde e saraade he nder leyɗeele keewɗe, jeddi ngalaa, ko kamngal ardii, sabu ene hawraa e wonnde e ngal haalee he nder leyɗeele 21, tuggude Geej Atlantik haa memoyi Maayo Woɗeewo, kono mbele ko noon kadi ngal way heewde haalooɓe? Mbele e ngal limee e nder ɗemɗe sappo Afriknaaje ɓurɗe waawde haaleede? Ko adii nde ngoɗoyten, ene moti ciftinen wonnde kaalaten ko ɗemɗe ɓurɗe waawde haaleede wonaa leñol ɓurngol heewde. Nde tawnoo eɗen nganndi wona kaaloowo ɗemngal kala jeyaa e askitintooɓe he leñol maggal.
Lelnude doggol ɗemɗe Afriknaaje ɓurɗe waawde haaleede tawa ko he mbaydi dewondiral (yeru wiyde ko ngal woni goo, ngala woni ɗiɗi, ekn.,) wona ko newii walla nii mbiyen wonaa ko aaɓnotoo. Sabu hay limannde wootere woodani tawa ko sellunde tuugnoraade e anndude no foti yimɓe kaalata ɗemngal maaniwal. Limanɗe keewɗe kuwtorteeɗe he ɗiin wiɗtooji fawii tan ko he eyɓinanɗe ceertuɗe he mbaydi. Ko ɗuum waɗi limooje ɗee ene luurondira, ndeya ara ɓura woɗnde ndee heewde walla wona tan nii feccere limannde adannde nde. Hayso limanɗe mum en e jaati waawa anndee ne, ɗemɗe ɓurɗe waawde haaleede Afrik ene nganndaa tuugnaade he hol e nokkuuji ɗo ɗe kaaletee e keewal yimɓe ɗiin nokkuuji. Ngol ɗoo doggol ɗemɗe sappo e tati ene huwtoree, hayso limanɗe ɗee pawii ko he eyɓinanɗe ceertuɗe, heen sahaaji boom luurondirɗe.
Hono no mbiyno ɗen nii, Pulaar/Fulfulde woni ɗemngal ɓurngal yaajde e saraade he nder ɗemɗe Afrik ɗee kala, kono ko Swahili hawraa woni ɓurngal heewde haalooɓe.

Swahili/kiswahili

Swahili walla Kiswahili, ko ɗemngal bantu kono jillungal Arabeere, kaaleteengal e nder leyɗeele sappo he nder Afrik, tuggude hakkundeere jookdu nduu haa memoyi Fuɗnaange-worgo, ummoraade fuɗnaange RDC ( Republique Democratique du Congo- Zaire) fayde Mosambik, rewiɗoon fayde leyɗeele grand lacs (Ruwanda, Burundi, Uganda,Tansani.) haa yettoyii Keña e Somali. He nder Tansani ko kamngal woni ɗemngal gollorngal laamu e janngirngal duɗe les-lese. To Keña ne ko kamngal woni gollorngal laamu e nehirngal caggal ɗemngal Engele; to Congo (Zaire) e ngal jeyaa he ɗemɗe nay ɗe laamu ngu huwtortoo he golle mum, ko hono noon ne to Uganndaa ko kamngal woni gollorngal laamu caggal Engele. Ene eyɓinee wonnde fotde 100 haa 150 miliyoŋ neɗɗo ene kaala ngal. Gaa-gaa jaajgol maggal to bannge koɗki, eɗen teskoo sabu maggal won’de ɗemngal lawakeewal he leyɗeele keewɗe kadi janngirteengal waɗii ngal ɗemngal guurngal balliforngal. Ko kamngal woni ɗemngal Afriknaawal ɓurngal heewde ballifanɗe.

Amharik

Nde sembe laamu Eccopi iwi he juuɗe Aksuum fay Amhara he teemedannde 10 haa yetti teemedannde 12, ɗemngal Amharik fuɗɗii ƴellitaade. Hannde ko kamngal woni ɗemngal lawakeewal (langue officiel) leydi Eccopi gila nde ɗemngal maɓɓe ganniyeewal ngal , Geezmaayi. Amharik limetee ko e ɗemɗe Semit en ko wayno Arabeere e Hibru, caltuɗi he yummayeewal ɗemngal Afroasiatik. Ko kamngal woni ɗemngal Amhara en, ɓe ene eyɓine fotde 28 miliyoŋ neɗɗo kono kadi ko ngal ɗemngal ari-ndendi (lingua franca) wonan’de kala Eccopinaaɓe hoɗɓe he nder saareeji e gure tappamaaje ɓe. E ngal haale kadi he leyɗeele takkiiɗe Eccopi ɗe ko wayno Erythre, Sudan, Somali e Jibuti (Djibouti).Amharik ene jogii alkule mum keeriiɗe kadi ɓooyɗe huwtoreede.

Hawsa

Hawsankooɓe ko leñol ɓurngol yaajde he nder leydi Nigeria e Niger. He nder Niseriyaa (Nigeria) 25% ko hawsankooɓe ɗuum ene rokka en limannde 65 Miliyoŋ neɗɗo gaskitintooɗo he maggal ko jiida e leñɗi goɗɗi ko wayno Fulɓe haalooɓe ngal. He Nijeer (Niger), 54 % yimɓe leydi ndi, fotde 10,486000 ko hawsankooɓe. Hawsankooɓe ene tawee he nder ɗeeɗoo leyɗeele haysinno heewaani, Benin, Cameroun, Ghana e Sudan. Hawsankoore ko ɗemngal ɓooyngal winndeede gila nde fulɓe koni laamu leyɗeele Hawsa e teemedannde sappo e jeenay ɓe kuwtoriima alkule arab (ajami) ngam winndude he fulfulde e hawsankoore. Caggal nde laamu koloñaal naati kadi hawsankooɓe kuwtoriima alkule latin ngam winndude he ɗemngal mum en. Gila ko adii jeytaare (independance) taw e ɓe njogii jaayndeeji binndeteeɗi he ɗemngal maɓɓe kadi e ɓe mballifoo e ɓe pira gannde kala he ɗemngal maɓɓe.

Yoruba
Yoruba ko gootal e ɗemɗe tati ɓurɗe waawde haaleede he nder Nigeria. E ngal haalee kadi he nder won e diiwaanuuji Benin e Togo. Ene hoddiree fotde 30 Miliyoŋ aadee ene haala ngal. Hono no Hawsankoore ni, Yoruba ne ko ɗemngal binndangal gila ko adii jeytaare.

Oromo
Hayso en mbiyno ɗemngal lawakeewal Eccopi ko Amharik ne, leñol ɓurngol heewde he nder leydi ndi ko Oromo en, kadi eɓe tawee to Somali, Keña e Jibuti (Djibouti). Ene hoddiree wonnde fotde 25 Miliyoŋ (25,000,000) aadee ene kala ɗemngal ngal.

Iboo/Iqbo

Hayso ɗemɗe ɗe jaŋtotoɗen ɗee fof ko momtikeeriije (langues transfrontalier) ne, Iboo kanum wonaa caringal, kono ko ngal gootal e nder ɗemɗe Afriknaaje ɓurɗe heewde haalooɓe. Iboo en tawatee tan ko he leydi Nigeria, kono eɓe njeyaa e ɗemɗe tati ɓurɗe mawnude caggal Hawsa e Yoruba. Ene hoddiree hakke 24 Miliyoŋ neɗɗo ene kaala ngal.

Lingala

Lingala ko gootal e ɗemɗe lawakeeje he nder Konngooji ɗiɗi ɗii kala (Congo Kinshasa e Brazaville). E ngal tawee kadi, hayso heewaani, he nder Angola e Centre Afrik. Hayso ngal saraaki no yoga e ɗemɗe ɗe kaalɗen dow ɗee ni, sabu maggal yaajde e heewde haalooɓe he nder RDC (Congo Braza), waɗi ene hoddiree wonnde fotde 25 Miliyoŋ neɗɗo ene kaala ngal. Lingala ko ɗemngal pinal haa ɓuri teeŋtude to bannge naalankaagal. Ko kamngal yimooɓe Konngonaaɓe (Zaire) kuwtortonoo he njimri mum en.

Pulaar/Fulfulde

Pulaar/Fulfulde en kaali, mbiyɗen ko kanum woni ɗemngal Afrik ɓurngal yaajde e saraade to bannge koɗki. Kono e mbeñdi ɗemngal bayngal hono no Swahili ni, Pulaar alaa hay he leydi ngootiri ɗo ngal woni ɗemngal lawakeewal (langue officiel) hayso ko ngal ɗemngal ngenndiyeewal (langue national) he nder leyɗeele keewɗe. Ko noon ne kadi, alaa hay wootere he saareeji laamorɗi he nder Afrik ɗo pulaar woni ɗemngal ari-ndenndi (lingua Franca) hayso tawii ko ngal ari-ndenndi he nder diwaanuuji keewɗi e nder leyɗeele Afrik keewɗe. Ko he leydi Guinee Conakry tan annda ko aldaa e jeddi wonnde ko fulɓe ngoni leñol ɓurngol heewde, kono nde tawnoo ko Susu en ɓuri heewde he nder Konaakiri (Conakry), 42%, ko ngaal woni ari-ndenndi.
Yimɓe heewɓe teskortoo fulɓe tan ko leñol aynaaɓe egga-hoɗa en (Pasteur nomade/nomad pastoralist), nde tawnoo ko ɗuum woni ganni maɓɓe kadi ko kamɓe keerorii ɗum he nder Afrik bannge hiirnaange, kono ɗuum ko juumre. Hayso pinal egga-hoɗa e pinal dowrinkaagal ene battine he nder pinal fulɓe ne, ittataa kadi fulɓe ko leñol ɓooyngol jogaade pinal saarankeewal, sabu maɓɓe ɓooyde jogaade laamuuji mawɗi e pinal fitram-gollaagu. Pulaar ko ɗemngal saarankeewal, ɗemngal fitiram-gollaagu kadi ɗemngal jaŋde e binndol. Fulɓe cosiino laamuuji keewɗi doolnuɗi ko wayno: Laamu Takruur, Laamu Deeniyankeeɓe, Almaamiya mo Fuuta Tooro, Almaamiya mo Ɓunndu, Almaamiya mo Fuuta-Jalon, Diina-Maasina, Laamu Sokoto (Sokoto Empire), Empire Toucouleur Muslimane (laamu Sayku Umarr Taal), Niooro du Rip (Laamu Hamma Ba mo Diakhou/ Maba Diakhou) e Laamu Fuladu (Muusa Moolo). Ndeke en njiyii pulaar ɓooyiino won’de ɗemngal lawakeewal, njulaagu e fitiram-gollaagu. Sabu fulɓe naatde he Islaam gila he teemedanɗe garwanɗe mum waɗi kadi ɓe ɓooyi janngude e huwtoraade binndol. Ɓe kuwtoriima alkule arab (ajami) ngam winndude he ɗemngal maɓɓe ko ene yaha jooni e duuɓi teemedde tati. Caggal jeytaare, nde laamuuji Afrik pelliti huwtoraade alkule latin ngam winndude ɗemɗe ngenndiije Afrik ɗemngal ene jeyaa e ɗemɗe Afrik ɓurngal winndeede e janngeede.

Manndinka

Manndinka (Bambara, Jula, Malinke, Soose) ko gootal e ɗemɗe ngenndiyankeeje Mali, kadi ko kamngal woni ari-ndenndi he yoga e saareeji maɓɓe ko wayno laamorngo ngoo, Bamako walla Segu. Calte maggal, Julaare, ene yaaji he nder leydi Cote d’Ivoire e Burkina Faso. He nder Guinee kadi Malinkoore ene jeyaa ɗemɗe tati ɓurɗe yaajde. Ko wonaa ɗee ɗoo leyɗeele, calte Manndinka ene kaalee he nder Senegal, Gambie, Mauritanie, e Algerie. Ene hoddiree wonnde fotde miliyoŋaaji sappo haa sappo e joy aadee ene kaalangal. Manndinkoore ko ɗemngal lawakeewal ɓooyngal gila he laamu Mali (Empire du Mali), kadi ko ngal ɗemngal pinal, ñeeñaagu, ngawlaagu e naalankaagal.

Kirundi.

Kirunndi ko gootal he ɗemɗe bantu. Fotde 97% he yimɓe Burunndi ene kaala ngal. Ko kamngal woni ɗemngal lawakeewal Burundi, kadi e ngal haalee e leyɗeele takkiiɗe ɗoon ɗee ko wayno Ruwanndaa, Tanzanie, RDC, e Ugannda.

Kinyarwanndaa

Kinyarwanndaa ko ɗemngal bantu, kamngal e Kirundi koɗe ceekodaaɗe. Kamɗe ɗiɗi kala ɗe njeyaa ko he yummawal Rwanda-Rundi walla Ruanda-Urundi. Ko kamngal woni ɗemngal lawakeewal Ruwannda. Denndaangal yimɓe leydi ndii, fotde 11 Miliyoŋ ene kaala ngal.

                                                           Wolof
Wolof walla Jolfe, hono no Pulaar noddirtangal, ko ceekodaangal e Pulaar e Seereraare, hono no ɗemɗiyankeeɓe ɓee mbiyata, hayso ɗemɗe ɗee nanondirtaa. Ko ngal gootal e ɗemɗe Senegambie caltungal he neeniwal Niger-Congo. Wolof tawatee tan ko he Senegal, Gambie, e Muritani. He leyɗe ɗiɗi gadiiɗe ɗee ko kamngal woni ari-ndendi. Hayso tawii to bannge kuule Senegaal, wolof ko gootal tan e ɗemɗe ngenndiije, hono no Joola, Manding, Pulaar, Sereere, e Soninke nii ne, e jaati wonaa noon golliraa. Ko kamngal woni ɗemngal media (Radio e Tele) gila ndee fof ngoni he juuɗe laamu nguu tan. So ɓennii farayse ko kamngal laamɓe ɓee kuwtortoo ngam haaldude e ɓiyɓe leydi ndi. Sabu saareeji mawɗi ɗii, Dakaar, Ndar, Jurbel, Luga e Kawlak fof wonnoode gure maɓɓe ganni, addanii ɗemngal maɓɓe ngal won’de ari ndenndi he nder leydi hee kala. Keewal haalooɓe Wolof ene eyɓinee fotde 11 miliyoŋ aadee. Hono no ɗemɗe ɗe keeweendi e joom mum en ko juulɓe ɗee fof nii, Wolof en ne kuwtorinooma alkule ajami ngam winndude he ɗemngal mum en. Ɗiin binndi ene nganndiranoo Wolofal, kadi caggal jeytaare ɓe kuwtoriima alkule latin ngam winndude he ɗemngal maɓɓe. Haysinno ballifanɗe e ɗemngal jolfe wayaani hono no Pulaar nii heewde, annduɓe maɓɓe dowrowɓe, ko wayno Seek Anta Joop, Sakiir Caam en mballifiima e maggal gannde toowɗe.

Soninke
Sooninkoore hayso heewaani haalooɓe ne, ko ɗemngal jaajngal kadi caringal he nder Fuɗnaange Afrik. Soninke ko calte ɗemngal Manndinka ene no ɗemɗiyankeeɓe ɓee mbiyata, ngal wilti ko he yummayeewal Niger-Conco. Ko Soninkeeɓe njoginoo semmbe laamu Ghanna fotde ko juuti haa nde Fulɓe ɓee keɓti ɗum wonti laamu Tekruur walla Takruur. Soninkeeɓe e Fulɓe koɗdi he nokkuuji keewɗi kadi njiidi enɗam. Haa ɓuri teeŋtude noon he nder Fuuta Tooro e Gidimakha. Soninkoore ene jogitiraa ɗemngal ngenndiyeewal (langue national) he nder Mali, Muritani, e Sengaal. Kono e ngal haale kadi to Gammbi, la Guinee, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinee Bissau e Ghana. Haalaɓo Soninkoore ene eyɓinee hedde 2,100,000 aadee.

Hol no foti yimɓe kaalata ɗemngal Pulaar/Fulfulde he nder Aduna he?

Hono no jiyruɗen nii, wonno fayndaare men he ndee winndannde ko anndude ɗemɗe Afrik ɓurɗe yaajde to bannge koɗki mum en e heewde haalooɓe. En kaaliino gila e fuɗɗoode wonnde rokkude limoode laaɓnde hol no foti yimɓe kaalata ɗemngal maaniwal wonaa ko aaɓnoto sabu ngoon humpito jogaaka. Ko eyɓinanɗe (estmation) tan tuugnaade e hol leyɗeele ɗemngal ngal haalatee, hol no foti yimɓe koɗi he ndiin walla ɗeen leyɗeele, he nder mum en holno foti e nder teemedere fof (%) kaalata ɗemngal ngal? Yeru, wiyooɓe hakke miliyoŋaaji sappo ene kaala ɗemngal wolf ɓee tuugnoto ko e wiyde hayso jolfuɓe ko 35% he nder Senegaal ne, he nder teemedere Senegaalnaajo fof heen cappanɗe njeetato (80%) ene kaala wolof. Ɗuum ene waawi won’de goonga, kono soɓe ngartii e ko wayno ɗemngal pulaar ɓe eyɓinta tan ko wonnde e nder teemedere Senegaalnaajo fof heen noogas e jeenayo (29%) ko Fulɓe. Kono mbele ko fulɓe tan kaalata Pulaar he nder Senegaal walla leyɗeele keddiiɗe ɗe ɓe koɗi ɗee? He nder Fuuta Tooro (Senegaal e Muritani) eɗen nganndi wonaa Fulɓe tan koɗi heen. Eɓe koɗdi e Soninkeeɓe e Jolfuɓe, kono ɓeen fof ene kaala Pulaar. Ko hono noon kala leydi ɗo Fulɓe koɗi, eɓe njogii diiwaanuuji ɗi ɓe ɓuri heewde kono e ɓe koɗdi heen e leñɗi goɗɗi tawa ko ɓeen kaalat ɗemngal maɓɓe. Ko ɗuum waɗi ɗii ɗoo leñɗi ɗi payɗen limde, keeweendi e mum en ene kaala Pulaar/Fulfulde, woni Soninkeeɓe, Seɓɓe-Jolfuɓe (Seedo-Seedo en), Bassari en, Dogon en, Gurmaaɓe, Gisgaaɓe e Tuppiri en.

Limoode nde tawaten e binndi ene wona tuggude e 25 haa 100 miliyoŋ neɗɗo ene haala Pulaar/Fulfulde. Eɗen nganndi ɗuum noon ene weeyondiri. Kono hayso ko ɗo hakkunde ɗoo tan pawi ɗen ma en ndañ limannde 50 Miliyoŋ aadee haalooɓe Pulaar/fulfulde he nder winndere he. Ɗuum firti, so ɓennii Swahili e Hawsa ko Pulaar/Fulfulde woni ɗemngal ɓurngal waawde haaleede e nder ɗemɗe Afrik.  

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