Firde gannde joom en pine ganniije: Hol no Baytul Hikmah walliri ɗemngal Arab ƴellitaade.

Ɗemngal Arab ko adii Islaam:

Ibn Khalduun, he nder deftere mum Muqaddimah, ene wiya ko Qur’aan adii won’de deftere winndaande he ɗemngal Arab, hayso tawii Ibn Ishaaq ne ene wiya, he nder deftere mum Siira (daartol nguurndal Nelaaɗo) wonnde, Warqa Ibn Nawfal ene winndatnoo defte ganndal nasraan (christianisme) he ɗemngal Arab, ɗe o firatnoo ummoraade he ɗemngal hibraani (Hebreu). Ko waawi heen won’de kala, daartol ene tabitini wonnde, haysinno binndol ene anndanoo he nder Arabeeɓe ko adii Islaam ne wonaano ko yaaji.

Hay he nder al-Qur’aan, Allah ene siforoo Arabeeɓe humam-binndeeɓe (Ummiyyiin). He wolde Badri, nde juulɓe ɓee pooli heeferɓe Makka haa ndahi heen heewɓe, yoga e maɓɓe ko maa coodtii nde keɓti ndimaagu mum en, kono heen ɓe ngalaano ko coodtorii ɓe kala heen baawɗo taraade e winndud Nelaaɗo Allah (Yoo Allah juul he mum hisna ɗum) wiyi wonata coodtordi mum ko janngin’de ɓiyɓe juulɓe sappo taraade e winndude.

Arabeeɓe ko anndiranooɓe waawde jime (poesie) kono ko adii Islaam hay ganndal gootal winndanooka he ɗemngal baadiyankooɓe Arabeeri (Jaziiratul-Arab). Ko ngoonga pine mawɗe ƴellitinooɗe he leyɗeele ganniije, ko wayno Misra (Egypt), Geres (Grece), Faaris (l’Empire Persane), Inndu (Inde) e Siin (Chine), fof so en ƴeewii e kartal wertaango ma en njiy ene taari Arabeeri, kono Arabeeɓe he ngaan saanga kanum en ko egga-hoɗa en he nder jeereende ngonnoo. Nguurndam saareyeejam tawetenoo tan ko to Worngo-arabeeri too (Yamen).

Caggal nde Islaam naati, addii mbayliigu patamlamu he Arabeeɓe he fannuuji keewɗi. Ene jeyyaa heen waylude ɗemngal maɓɓe ummoraade he won’de ɗemngal yimiyankeeɓe waɗti ɗum ɗemngal ɓurngal toowde he nder ɗemɗe aduna ɗee kala. Ngal wonti ɗemngal paggorngal ganndal, njulaagu e kumtondiral haajuuji hakkunde leñɗi aduna ɗii kala. Kono ɗuum finaani tan woni, alaa! Ene yonatnoo Arabeeɓe tan wiyde Allah suɓiima ɗemngal mum en jippinii heen Qur’aan mum tedduɗo o, ɓe katojinaani e hay ganndal gootal hankadi, kono wonaa noon ɓe mbaɗi. Ɓe mbiy ko so Allah suɓiima ɗemngal rokkii joom mum en teddungal potaani jaɓde daɗeede e hay ganndal gotal. Ɓe mbaɗi heen himme maɓɓe e ngaluuji maɓɓe ngam ƴellitde ɗemngal Arab e eggude he maggal denndaangal gannde goodnooɗe he oon saha. Ene jeyaa e ko addani ɗuum laataade, sooseede Baytul Hikmah.

Baytul Hikmah (Galle Ñeeñal):

Duuɓi keewɗi ko adii nde Baytul Hikmah sosetee, taw taaɓanɗe keewɗe mbaɗaama ngam ƴellitde pinal e ganndal he ɗemngal Arabeere he nder laamateeri Islaam. Tuggude gila e Khalifaaɓe feewɓe ɓee (Khulafaa’ ar-Raashiduun) haa yettii laamu Umawiyyah en, yonta heen kala addii ballal mum he ƴellitde pinal Islaam e ɗemngal Arab. Eɗen nganndi ko he laamu Abuubakri deftere Allah ndee (al-Qur’aan) renndinaa waɗtaa Mushaf (kaamiilu kiɓɓuɗo). Nde Usmaan ari kanum waɗti njannginaaji ɗii gootum kadi ɓeydi e binndi hee masɗe e toɓɓe. Ko adii taw ɗuum fof alaano heen. He yonta Banu Umayya en kanum en ne mballi no feewi he ƴellitogol ganndal hadisaaji, tafsiir,fiqhu, daartol kanum e ɗemngal arab (jime, nahwu e sarf ). Kono ko daartiyankeeɓe noddirta yonta kaŋŋeejo Islaam koo ari ko he yonta Abbaasyankooɓe. Ko he yonta Abbaasyankooɓe, he nder laamorgo maɓɓe Baghdaad, pinal Islaam ƴellitii; gannde piindi haa njuumti, layiriɗoon haa ciifnii he nder aduna oo kala.

Daartiyankeeɓe ɓee ene luurdi e hol cosɗo Baytul Hikmah. Won yahruɓe wonnde njuɓɓudi Abbaasyankooɓe anndiraande Bayt al-Hikmah (Galle Ñeeñal) ndii fuɗɗii ko e galle laamɗo Abbaasyanke biyeteeɗo Abu Ja’far al-Mansuur ciñcuɗo wuro Baghdaad ngoo o. Khalifah al-Mansuur laamiima dowla Islaam fotde duuɓi 21 (754-775). ko o jiɗnooɗo ganndal sanne, paggittonooɗo defte . Omo roɓintonoo defte binndaaɗe walla piraaɗe he ɗemngal Arab kala he yonta makko, gila e defte diine (hadiis, fiqhu, e tafsiir) haa e defte daartol, coñce, ɗemngal (lugha, nahw, sarf); kono kadi defte gannde goɗɗe, ko wayno safaara (medcine), mbewu (astronomie), e aasiñoraagal o renndini ɗum en he nokku gooto no defterdu ni (Khizanat Dar Al-Kutub Al-Ma’muuniya). Ko ɗeen defte ɗe o roɓintonoo o renndini ɗum en he he defterdu he nder galle makko, goni aawdi Daar al-Hikmah.

Ko kanko al-Mansuur woni Khalifah (Laamiiɗo Juulɓe) gadiiɗo hirjin’de juulɓe yoo njanngu gannde (sciences) kadi kimmirana ƴellitde ɗum en rewrude he firde defte binndaaɗe he ɗemɗe Gerek, Syriac, Faaris e Sanskrit (Indo). ɓe mbaɗta ɗum en he ɗemngal Arab. Ene jeyaa e ko ɓe ngadii firde, binndanɗe Euclid, Aristotle, e Claudius Ptolemy. Ene wiyee kadi ko he yamiroore Abu Jaafar al-Mansuur, Ibn Ishaaq winndi deftere mum siira (Daartol Nguurndam Nelaaɗo Allah). Eno ciimtol ngol yahri, ngaan tuma taw Ibn Ishaaq ene wonndi e al-Mansuur to Baghdaad e ɓe njooɗii haa ɓiy al-Mansuur biyeteeɗo Muhammad Ibn Al-Mansuur (Al-Mahdi) oo naati. Al-Mansuur laaɓndiimo: “ Ibn Ishaaq, Aɗa anndi mo woni o? ‘Eey kay,’ Ibn Ishaaq jaabiimo. ‘Oo ko ɓiy Amiir Al-Mu’miniin (Laamiiɗo Juulɓe).’ Yah winndan mo deftere [daartol] tuggude gila nde Allah tagi Aadama haa yettii yonta ngonɗen hannde oo”. Ibn Ishaaq winndani mo deftere, kono Al-Mansuur wiyimo kadi deftere ndee juutii yo o yah o raɓɓiɗiino. Ko ndeen raɓɓiɗinaade woni deftere makko anndaande ndee. Mawnde (Juutniinde) ndee o waɗi ɗum he defterdu laamiiɗo juulɓe hee.

Haaruun Al-Rashiid (149-193 H)

Ko he laamu Haarun al-Rashiid, (laamiiɗo duuɓi 23, tuggude he 786-809) dillere (mouvement) pirgol gannde he ɗemngal Arab ɓeydii doolnude. Ɓe kuwtorii annduɓe Arabeeɓe nasraaniyankeeɓe, Syriac en e Faarisnaaɓe ngam firde gannde keewɗe he ɗemngal Arab. He nder woldeeji (golwole) e ruggooji makko ɗi o waɗnoo he nder laamanteeri Baysantiin, o mooɓii toon defte keewɗe ummoraade he defterɗi mum en o artiri ɗum Baghdaad. Ene wiyee nde konu juulɓe nguu honi Ankara o yamiriɓe yoɓe kisnu kala defterdu wonnoondu toon, ɓe mooɓe defte ɗee kala ɓe ndimnda ɗum en ɓe paytira Baghdaad. Nde ɗeen defte njettii, kamnje fof ɗe mbaɗoyaa to Baytul Hikmah.

Bayt al-Hikmah fuɗɗorinoo tan ko won’de defterdu ɗo laamɓe Abbaasyankeeɓe lemminatnoo defte mum ɗe paggittonoo kadi ene nodda annduɓe yoo ngarɗoon ene mbiɗta, ene coccondira he ganndal kadi ene pira gannde ɗee he ɗemngal Arab. Eɗen ciftora ko he ndiin mbaydi al-Mansuur yamirnoo Ibn Ishaaq yoo winndan ɗum deftere daartol, kadi ko ndeen woni deftere Siira adiinde winndeede. Haaruun al-Rashiid ne yamiriino Ibn Qarib al-Asm’l (121-216 H) yoo winndan ɗum deftere daartol (taariik) o gayni winndude deftere nde ko he nder Bayt al-Hikmah. Abu Zakariya al-Farra’ (144-206) kanum ne ene jeyaa e winnduɓe defte nahwu gadiiɗe taw ɗuum fof waɗa ko he yamiroore e ballal laamɓe Abbaasyankooɓe.

Al-Ma’muun (170-217 H)

Caggal Haaruun Al-Rashiid (Haroun al-Rachid) ko ɓiy mum biyeteeɗo Al-Ma’muun o (laamiiɗo duuɓi 20, tuggude he 813-833) lomtii e won’de laamiiɗo juulɓe. O yaactini Baytul-Hikmah waɗti wiyeede Daar-al-Hikmah. Kadi nokku o fccaa waɗaa no departamaaji ni (Riwaq), fannu ganndal fof rokka departamaa mum.

Al-Ma’muun, e hoore mum, ko ganndo kuɓɓuɗo wonnoo. Ko o panninooɗo he coñce, filosofi e ganndal (science). Nde o ari o ronti himmeeji adinooɓe mo ɓee he yiɗde ganndal e ƴettude peeje he holno ganndal ƴellitortoo yaaja he nder laamanteeri Islamm. O yaltini ngaluuji keewɗi ngam wallitde annduɓe haa ndaña no mbaɗiri wiɗtooji ganndal e no mballiforii ɗeen ngannde he ɗemngal Arab.

Wiyaama o meeɗi neldude teemedere ngelooba to Khurasaan (fuɗnaange-rewo Faaris) yoo ndimndu defte ngaddee ɓeydee he Daar al-Hikmah. Ene wayno kala ko adinooɓe mo njoginoo e hiime ngam yoo gannde pire mbaɗtee he ɗemngal Arab, nde o ari kanko o daɗtiima ɗum en ɗo pucci ndogata.

Wiyaama nde o nani fiyaaku defterdu Sicily (ndeen ko he njiimaandi juulɓe wonnoo) o neli yoo lamɗo o neldumo ko woni he defterdu hee koo kala (e ndu alɗunoo defte filosofi e gannde Gerek en) omo ɓeyda ɗum he Daar al-Hikmah, oon neldimo.

Habraama kadi o neliino e laamiɗo (empereur) Baysantiin (Byzantine) wonnde yoo oon yamirmo o nelda toon annduɓe (ulamaa’) ngara pira denndaangal gannde nafooje gonɗe he nder leydi mum. Oon jaɓi. O neldi toon sate annduɓe, o wiy ɗum en so njahii yoo pir ko mbaawi e gannde annduɓe Gerek en, kadi caatoo ko firanoo adan ko. Ene jeyaa e nelanooɓe toon, Al-Hajjaj Ibnu Mater, Ibnu Al-Batriiq, Salaam Ibnu Haaruun (Koroowo Daar al-Hikmah), Yuhanna Ibn Masawayha e Hunayn Ibnu Ishaaq.

Firatnooɓe Daar al-Hikmah ɓurɓe lollude e njeenaaje mum en.

Ene jeyaa firatnooɓe ɓurɓe lollude he nder Baytul Hikmah walla mbiyen Daarul Hikmah, ko noon sakkitii wiyeede, biyeteeɗo Yuhanna Ibnu al-Batriiq al-Tarjumaani. Ko kanko firi deftere Aristotle, deftere Daabeeje (Kitaab al-Haywaan). Hunayn Ibnu Ishaaq al-Ibaadi, ko kanum firi yoga he binndanɗe ñawndoowo Gereknaajo biyeteeɗo Hippocrates o. Hunayn ene haalatnoo ɗemɗe nay, Arabeere, Syriac (Siriyak), Farsi e Gerek. Al-Ma’muun suɓiimo waɗimo hooreejo departamaa firooɓe o. Wiyaama kala deftere nde ɓe piri, ɗereeji mum peesdetee ko o kaŋŋe kala no foti ɓe tottee.

Ibnu Nadiim ene wiya he nder deftere mum al-Fihrist, wonnde woon e firatnooɓe ko wayno Ibnu al-A’sam e Saabit Ibn al-Qurra ene njoɓetenoo gooto e mum en kala ko ɓuri 500 dinaar lewru fof.

Ganndo kadi lolluɗo biyeteeɗo Abu Yuusuf Ya’quub al-Kinndii, jaɓananooɗo he waawde filosofi, safaara (medcine), hiisaweeje (mathématiques), mbewu (l’astronomie), géométries. e logique (mantiq), kanum ne al-Ma’muun suɓii ɗum yoo fir binndanɗe Aristotle.

Daar al-Hikmah wonaano tan galle firooɓe gannde ene lemminee, kono ɗo sakketɗoo wonti ko hono no duɗal jaaɓi haaɗtirde ni, ɗo ɗeen gannde kadi ene njannge. Laamɓe Abbaasyankeeɓe ɓee ene njaltinatnoo ngaluuji keewɗi njoɓa annduɓe yoo njanngin ɗoon yimɓe ɓee filosofi, mbewu, daartol, wertaango (geographie), hiisaweeje, e safaara. Ɗeeɗoo gannde kala ene njanngetenoo ɗoon yantude e gannde Islaam, Qur’aan, tafsiir, hadiis, siira, kalaam e daarto Islaam wonndude e ɗemngal arab (lugha, nahwu, sarf, e jima).

Sikke alaa, batte Bayt al-Hikmah kaaɗano tan he Baghdaad laamorngo Abbaasyankeeɓe ngo, kono gure Islaam mawɗe ɗee kala cosii Bayt al-hikmah mum en. So en ƴetti yeru tan e defterdu Cordoba (Kordoba) ene wiyee ene waɗnoo hakke 400,000 deftere.

Addu Yiyannde ma

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.