Tumbuktu: Peewje Abdel Kader Haydara Ngam Faddaade Jihaadiyankooɓe hoto Mboomde Gannde Afrik Ɓooyma.

He duuɓi jawtuɗi ɗii pelle nodditortooɗe Jihaadyankeeje (Al-Qa’ida e Da’is) mbonni ko heewi e ndonateeri pinal aade to bannge Fuɗnaange-Ɓadiiɗo e Worgo Afrik. Ɓe kelii jumaaji keewɗi, ɓe pusi janaale waliyaaɓe, eglisaaji e defterɗi e jaatiiji (monuments) daartolyankeeji; ɓe nduppi defte e ballifanɗe (manuscrits) keewɗe joginooɗe faayida mawɗo he daartol pinal aade, walla ɓe ngujja ɗum en sabu maɓɓe anndude ko njaru majje en ɓuri tiiɗde hay muudo kaŋŋe.

He nder ɓaleeri Afrik ko he bannge rewo e hakkundeere leydi Mali ɓeen waɗboniiɓe ɓurnoo hawnude.

Balɗe seeɗe caggal nde ɓe koni Tumbuktu, Abdel Kader Haydara, baɗɗo nguurndam mum kala he roɓindaade, renndin’de e reende ballifanɗe Tumbuktu he nder defterdu mum (Defterdu Mamma Haydara) ndu o ronti ummoraade he jibnaaɓe makko, fuɗɗii ɗaɗɗude peewje e holno o daɗndirta ndii ndonateeri pinal e gannde. O noddi gollodiiɓe makko he nder ñiiɓirde fedde defterɗiyankeeɓe Tumbuktu, nde o tafnoo kanko e hoore makko duuɓi sappo e joy ɓennuɗi (ko saalii), o wiyiɓe: “Miɗo sikki potɗen ko egginde defte ɗee kala itten ɗum en he kuɓeeje mawɗe ɗee coornoyen ɗum en he nder galleeji wuro he. Sabu so en mbaɗaani noon ɓe nduppatɗe kannje fof walla ɓe ngujja ɗe.” Nde ɓe nanondiri he ndeen feewre ɓe ndenndini banndiraaɓe maɓɓe e gollantunooɓe ɓee; ɓe coodi bakane lekɗe e jamɗe. So yahii haa jamma ɓe mbaala leemde defte ɗee he bakane, ɓe ndimnda ɗum en he bamɗi (mbaamɗi/ndakiwe), ɓe naatna ɗum he nder galleeji ɗii he nder niɓɓere jamma he, goɗɗe heen ɓe njolni ɗum en he laaɗe ɓe payri Bamako laamorgo Mali.

He Siilo (Janvier )2013, nde Soldateeɓe Farayse ndiddata waɗboniyankeeɓe ɓee njaltini ɗum en Tumbuktu, taw ɓeen nduppi ko ene aɓɓoo he 4000 ballifanɗe, kono sinno wonaano feewre Abdel Kader Haydara denndaangal defte e wallifooji Tumbuktu kooñatnoo ko he oorngal Jihaadiyankeeɓe, ndoondi mum weɗoo he nder seenooje Sahel.

Hol Sabaabu Tumbuktu?

Hay ko ɓooyaani tuubakooɓe Orop, ardunooɓe momtude pine, gannde e neɗɗaagal Afriknaaɓe ngam haa tabitina njiimaandi mum en he ɓiyɓe jookdu ndu , ene kujjinortonoo wonnde ko garaangal mum en itti Afrik he niɓɓere huurnoonde ɗum gila dawaa dawi. Afrik, ɓe mbiyi, meeɗani ƴellitde hay pinal gootal walla njuɓɓudi renndoyankoori ndi ene hollira neɗɗo ɓaleejo ene waawnoo yuɓɓin’de renndo e laamaade hoore mum. He mbeñdi leyɗeele joom en pine ƴellitiiɗe ɗee, Afriknaaɓe kanum en mbaawaa miijanaade koye mum, daliilu mum ko Afriknaaɓe meeɗaani anndude binndol; ɓe ngalaa coñce; ɓe mbinndaani hayhuunde he daartol nguurndam maɓɓe saka noon ƴellitde ganndal naftowal aadee. Mbele ko noon majjere maɓɓe he Afrik fotnoo walla ko kennje fowru tan wonno mbele haa njur daña no yaniri he wasorde? Ko waawi heen won’de kala, wiɗtooji e jaatiiji daartolyankeeji pennii ndeen yiyannde. Ɗalboom, wiɗtooji ene kollira nii wonnde ene gasa tawa binndol fentaa ko he jookdu Afrik, tawa kadi ko yimɓe ɓaleeɓe puɗɗi ɗum. Defterɗi Tumbuktu, ene njeyaa hannde e batteeji pinal e ganndal he nder Afrik kollirooji won nde Afrik daɗnoo yoga e leyɗeele Orop pinal e ganndal he won jamanuuji.

Tumbuktu Wuro Ganni e Gannde

Tumbuktu ( ene winndire Timbuktu walla nii Tumbutu) ko wuro he nder leydi Mali. Hakkunde maggo e Maayo Nijeer (Fleuve Niger) ko Km 20. Tumbuktu ko wuro ganni. He teemedannde 12 ɓre taw ngo wontii saare teerirde julankooɓe, ɗo kaŋŋe, lamɗam, ñiiñe ñiibi e nguuraaji njeeyete no. Tumbuktu seediima laamuuji mawɗi keewɗi ƴellitinooɗi he nder ɓaleeri Afrik (Bilaad As-Suudaan) kadi ngo jeyaama he nder yoga he ɗiin laamuuji. He teemedannde 14ɓre taw ngo jeytaama he Laamu Mali (l’Empire du Mali), duuɓi seeɗe he garwanɗe teemedannde 15ɓre ngo woniino he les njiimaandi Tuwaareg en kono ɓooytaani, he 1468 ngo arti he juuɗe laamɓe Songgaay. Caggal ɗuum he 1591 Laamu Marok yani he laamu Sonngaay, ngam yiɗnoode fawde junngo mum he oogirɗe kaŋŋe ɗe Mali anndiranoo ɗe, ɓe koni Gaawoo e Tumuktu; ɓe eggini laamorgo ngoo ummoraade Gaawo ɓe paytiri ɗum Tumbuktu. Kono hayso laamu Marok helii doole Sonngaay ne, ɓe ndañaani heen kamɓe ne ko wonnoo sago maɓɓe koo. Soofaaɓe (soldateeɓe) maɓɓe fof ko toon keddi ko kamɓe ngonti anndiranooɓe “ARMA” en he oon ɗoon diiwan. He 1833 taw Gaawoo he Tumbuktu fof naattii he laamu Fulɓe Maasina (l’Empire Peul du Macina).

Defterɗi Tumbuktu ko Ngalu Ceedotoongu Pinal Afrik

Hayso Tumbuktu ko wuro julankooɓe fuɗɗorinoo ne, ngo ɓuri lollirde ko won’de wuro jaŋde e wallifooji ganndal. Ahmad Baaba, gooto e annduɓe Tumbuktu kadi lolluɗo sabu ganndal mum e heewde ballifanɗe ene wiya: “He nder Gaawoo e Tumbuktu ko njeeygu defte ɓurno hay njeeygu kaŋŋe heewde tonaari (benefiis). He nder Tumbuktu, kadi o wiy, ko kanko defterdu mum ɓurnoo famɗude defte, te kanko omo joginoo ko ɓuri ujunere e teemedde nay (1400 ) deftere he nder defterdu makko.

National Geographic ene eyɓina wonnde ko ene wona 700,000 ballifanɗe junngo (manuscrits) ene tawee he nder wuro Tumbuktu. Hannde ene tawee he nder wuro Tumbuktu ko ene wona 60 defterdu, ɗi joom mum en donti he jibnaaɓe mum en. Ene jeyaa e ɗiin defterɗi inniraandu Ahmad Baaba ndu ene tawee e mum ko ene wona 30, 000 ballifanɗe. Yimɓe ene njokki arde he ɗiin defterɗi ñalnde kala ngam wiɗtude e etaade eggude ɗeen gannde moofta ɗum en he mooftirɗe (digitalization/ numérisation) ɗe karallaagal kesal newni hannde. Hayso tawii ene tuuma wonnde won mooftuɓe haajoni defte e ballifanɗe ɓooyɗe he nder diiwan he ene calii yaltin’de sabu hulde ko heɓnooɓe e tuma nde Farayse honi leydi ndi. Hee ngaan saanga kooniŋkooɓe Farayse duppii ko heewi e defte e ballifanɗe ɗe njiitunoo toon. Ko wanoo ɗuum kadi ene anndaa wonnde ballifanɗe keewɗe, hono no ballifanɗe diiwaanuuji Afrik keddiiɗi ɗii ni, tilfiima tawa saabi ɗum ko geɗe keewɗe ceertuɗe, ko wayno hareeji hakkunde konuuji keewɗi, konɗi nokku o he nder daartol, kadi e keneeli (nguleeki e jaangol), mooƴu ekn… Caggal nde Farayse laamii Mali ko juuti, heewɓe rontunooɓe ɗeen defte e ɗeen ballifanɗe taw nattii waawde janngude ɗum en nde tawnoo ko e ɗemngal Arab ɗe mbinndanoo, joom mum en duppi ɗeen defte walla ngasi ubbi ɗeen ballifanɗe nayeeje. Ɗuum wonii baasal mawngal wonan’de Afrik e neɗɗankaagal he kuuɓal nde tawnoo ɗeen defte njahdii sirluuji daartol Afrik keewɗi ɗi ngontaa yiyte.

Hol ko Janngetenoo e hol ko winndetenoo he nder Tumbuktu

Pinal jaalinoongal he Tumbuktu ko pinal Islaam kadi kala ko janngetenoo he nder duɗe Islaam he aduna hee, ko wayno Azhar, Qayruwaan walla Zaytuun, ene janngetenoo ɗoon. Annduɓe Tumbuktu ene limetenoo e annduɓe winndere Islaam. Ɓe ngonaano janngooɓe jannginooɓe ngannde Islaam tan kono kadi ko ɓe walliftonooɓe ɓeydantnooɓe yaajnude ganndal e pinal Islaam. Ɓe mballifiima he ɗeeɗo gannde kala:

  • Ganndal Qur’aan (Uluum al- Qur’aan)
  • Hadiis
  • Tafsiir
  • Siira (Daartol Nguurndam Nelaaɗo Allah)
  • Gannde he ko yowitii he laabi Suufiyankeeji
  • Ɗemngal Arab
  • Jime
  • Celluka e Mbinndiin Arab (Nahwu e Sarf)
  • Daartol Islaam (Taarikh)
  • Daartol Afrik e laamuuji Bilaad as-Suudaan
  • Gannde Hiisiwe (Mathématiques)
  • Mbewu (Astronomie)
  • Safaara (medcine).

Yeru so en ƴettii defterdu Mamma Haydara, woni ndu kaal ɗen joom mum , Abdel Kader Haydara, dow too ndu, ene tawee heen deftere Quraana winndaande gila he teemedannde 12ɓre, taw winnda ko he laral (parchemin) nguru liingu; ene winndiraa ngummbudi bulaari jalbundi ene ñakkaa (wisaa) conndi kaŋŋe. Kono kadi ene tawee he nder defterdu hee gannde goɗɗe ko wonaa Islaam ko wayno jime, mbewu, dabare e safaara. Yeru, deftere ene heen ko nde ɗereeji 254, nde winndaa ko ɗoon he Tumbuktu he 1684 tawa nde haalata koko yowitii he ganndal oppeer (Chirurgie).

He 1988 UNESCO ɓeydii Tumbuktu he doggol ko ɓe mbiyata “Ndonateeri Aduna” (patrimoine mondial) ko, kadi he 2012 sabu hareeji e golwole baɗooje he diwaan o ɗe ɓe ɓeydi ngo kadi he doggol “Ndonateeri Aduna hulanaandi boomaare”.

Addu Yiyannde ma

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