Pulaar, Ɗemngal gootal Jooma Mbinndinaaji tati: Ajami, Abajada e ADLaM.

Mbele Fulɓe meeɗii huwtoraade binndol gila nde ɓe koɗi Misra, so tabitii kay wonnde ko toon ɓe ngadii jeyeede, hono no woon e daartiyankooɓe njogitorii ɗum ni? Ɗuum jaabowol mum suwaa yiyteede tawo he ko tabiti, hayso alaa ko haɗata ɗuum waawde aaɓnaade. Kono ko laaɓi kam, fawaade he batteeji tabitɗi, ko wonnde ko Pulaar fuɗɗii winndeede fayde jooni ɓurii duuɓi teemedde ɗiɗi.

ABAJADA:

Gila he teemedannde 18ɓre taw Fulɓe mbaɗtiino huwtoraade alkule Arab (Ajami) ngam winndude he ɗemngal mum en neeniwal Fulfulde. Ɗiin binndi ene njaajnoo kadi ene carinoo he leyɗeele Fulɓe ɗee, ko wayno Fuuta Tooro, Fuuta Jalon, Maasina e Sokoto.

Fulɓe ene kuwtortonoo ɗiin binndi ngam winndude ko wonno soklaaji mum en he ngaan saanga, ɗuum woni ɓataakeeji e jime, ɗe ko ɓuri heewde e mum en njowitii ko he fiyakuuji diine Islaam e tinndinooje dewal Allah. Caɗeele gonɗe he ɗeen alkule noon woni ɗe ngalaa woon e hitooji ɗi ɗemngal Pulaar hatojini ko maa oon tigi ɓeyda heen toɓɓe ngam addude ɗiin hitooji. Caɗeele goɗɗe ɗee wonnoo ko cañu kelme ɗee ko gooto kala winndirta ko hono no weliraa walla no faamiri nde tawno hay njuɓɓudi ngootiri woodaano ndi ene lelna kuule mbinndiin Pulaar he ngaan saanga.Ɗuum waɗi so oon tigi ene taroo binndi ɗii ko ma o wadda heen ƴoƴre. Binndi Ajami fof e heewde ŋakkeende haɗaani Fulɓe kuwtoriima ɗum, hono no mbiyɗen ni, ko ene wona duuɓi teemedde ɗiɗi. Ene jeyaa e winndiyankooɓe Fulɓe lolluɓe huwtortonooɓe ajami, ko wayno Neene Asmaa’u, ɓiy Sayku Usmaan Danfodio, Laamiiɗo Sokoto, Seyku Usmaan e hoore mum, ɓiyi makko Muhammad Bello e miñi makko Abdullaahi Ɓiy Foodiyo. Ceerno Sammba Mommbeya mo Fuuta Jalon ballifiiɗo deftere nde tiitoonde mum ko OOGIRƊE MALAL, Amadu Ali Caam mo Fuuta Tooro, binnduɗo daartol Seyku Umar Taal he ɗemngal Pulaar walla ko wayno Ceerno Boy mo Fuuta Tooro, ballifiiɗo kanum ne jime keewɗe he ɗemngal Pulaar tawa yowitii ko he waajuuji e tinndinooje Islaam.

Alkule Latin:

Gila he yonta koloñaal tuubakooɓe heewɓe etinooma winndude ɗemɗe Afriknaaje tawa kuwtorii ko alkule latin, kono ko he 1966 he ballal UNESCO annduɓe e fanniyankooɓe he ɗemɗe Afriknaaje lulii to Bamako, Mali, tuggude ñalnde 28 Feb he 5 Mars ngam daɗɗude peeje e holno ɗemɗe Afrik mbinndortoo. Ene jeyanoo e tawtoraaɓe ndeen ɗoon lulnde Mawɗo Amadu Hampaate Bah, ko kanko jooɗaninoo toon ɗemngal Fulfulde yantude e annduɓe woɗɓe Afriknaaɓe ko wayno Demmba Ndaw jooɗaninooɗo Manndinkoore e annduɓe woɗɓe tuubakooɓe fanniiɓe he ɗemɗe Afriknaaje. He ndeen joɗnde ɓe kawri e huwtoraade alkule latin ngam winndude ɗemɗe Afriknaaje kadi ɓe ɓeyɗi heen alkule ɗe ene mbaawa addude hitooji ɗi ɗemɗe Afriknaaje katojini ɗe, haa ɓuri teeŋtude he ɗemɗe ɗe joom mum en tawtoranoo he ndeen jonnde ɓe. Woni Kanuuri, Hawsa, Fulfulde, Manndingkoore, Tamasheq, e Sonngaay (Jermaare).

Caggal joɗnde Bamako, batuuji goɗɗi keewɗi mbaɗaama ngam ƴeewde nanondiral he mbinninaaji ɗemɗe Afriknaaje. Yeru he 1970 batu jooɗiima to Yaounde laamorgo Kameruun ngam daɗɗude peeje e holno ɗemɗe Bantu mbinndirtee. He 1975 lulnde woɗnde jooɗi tuggude ñalnde 21-23 Aout to Kotonu leydi Benin, ngam fawjude tafngol binndol ɗemɗe Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria e Haut Volta (Burkina Faso).

He ngaan saanga pelle Pulaaryankooje ɗee ne taw ene ndukda e hol alkule ɗe Pulaar foti huwtoraade. Nde tawnoo yimɓe yahruɓe jaŋde Arabeere heewɓe mbiynoo ko Fulfulde foti huwtoraade ko alkule Arab ɗe tan, hono no leyɗeele juulɓe, ko wayno Iran, Pakistan e Afghanistan en ni ekn.., Kono almuudɓe fulɓe janngatnooɓe leyɗeele Arabeeɓe ɓee, ko wayno Misra, kanum en taw mbaɗtiino huwtoraade alkule latin ngam winndude he pulaar. Ɗeen woni ganndiraaɗe alkule Keer (Caire). Ɓe mbayli hitooji woon e alkule ɓe ndokki ɗum en hitooji jahduɗe he ɗemngal Pulaar. Yeru: alkulal (v=ɓ), (z = ɗ). He ngaan saanga kadi taw lo leydi Lagine (Guinee), Seykou Toure yamiriino yoo ɗemɗe ngenndiije ɗee njannge. Kamɓe ne ngam winndude Pulaar, ɓe kuwtorii alkule latin kono ngam ɓe mbaawa dañde won e hitooji Pulaar, ɓe kuwtorii alkule ɓasaaɗe, woni (bh = ɓ), (dh =ɗ), ekn…

To leydi Senegaal, caggal pooɗee-nduure hakkunde harbiyankeeɓe ɗemɗe ngenndiije ɓee e hooreejo leydi o, Loepold Sedar Senghor, laamu nguu yaltini he jaaynde lawakeere ngenndi (Journa officiel), ñalnde 31 Aout 1968, dekkere 68-871 he ko yowitii he jaŋde ɗemɗe ngenndiije e cosgol goomu toppittooɗo tafgol alkule e cañu kelme Wolof e Seereer. Golle nguun goomu njey sabaabu kuulal goɗngal: dekkere 75-1021 ñalnde 10 Octobre 1975. Kono golle goomu Pulaar ngu kanum jaɓoyaa ko he kuulal 80-1049 ñalnde 16 Juin 1980. Ko he ngaan saanga kadi to Muritani, Duɗal Ɗemɗe Ngenndiije Muritani (Institut des Langues Nationales 1982-1999) sosaa (siñcaa).

He 1978 UNESCO yuɓɓiniino joɗnde to Ñemey, leydi Niger tuggude ñalnde 17 haa 21 Julliet 1978 nde ɓe noddiri, Joɗnde Fanniyankeeɓe ngam binndugol e paamondiral ɗemɗe Afriknaaje ( Réunion d’experts sur la transcription et l’harmonisation des langues Africaines). He ndeen joɗnde, annduɓe heewɓe ummoriiɓe ga leyɗeele Afrik e Orop tawtoraama ɗum. Joɗaninoo toon ɗemngal Pulaar ko Professor Alpha Ibraahiima Soh mo Lagine, ummorinooɗo Farayse. Ko soñaa hee ɗeen golle ko nawtaama to dowlaaji Afriknaaji ngam haa wona tuugnorɗe he binndugol ɗemɗe mum en ngenndiije.

Ndeke so en ƴeewi, ma en taw tuggude gila Afrik heɓti ndimaagu mum e jeytaare mum dawrugol, peeje ceeraani e waɗeede ngam no ɗemɗe Afrik mbinndiraa. Tuggude 1966 haa e 1980 jonɗe keewɗe e batuuji keewɗi njooɗiima gila e batuuji nder leyɗeele haa e batuuji fanniyankeeɓe to bannge ɗemɗiyankaagal, jannginooɓe walla winndiyankeeɓe ngam fewjude no ɗemɗe Afrik mbinndiraa. Ko he ɗeen jonɗe e ɗiin batuuji paamondiral dañaa he kuwtorogol alkule latin ngam winndude Pulaar. Tuggude kadi gila nde ngaal nanondiral waɗi Pulaar waɗii taaɓannde mawnde he binndol e jaŋde ɗemngal Pulaar. Gannde keewɗe mballifaama heen. Tuggude he 1980 fayde hannde ko ene ɓura ujunere (1000) tiitoonde, he kala fannu ganndal, winndaam he pulaar tawa ko he alkule latin; lowe geese (site internet) keewɗe ene ngoodi tawa mbinndata ko he pulaar tawa kuwtortoo ko alkule latin. Ene gasa tawa ko golla he ɗuuɓi cappanɗe nay, gila pulaar waɗti huwtoraade alkule latin, fayde hannde ko, ene fota walla ɓura ko winndanoo he pulaar duuɓi teemedde ɗiɗi jawtuɗe nde pulaar huwtortonoo alkule ajami (Arab) nde.

ADLaM

Abdullahi e Ibraahiima Bari, Fentuɓe binndol ADLaM

Hayso alkule ɗe kaalɗe dow ɗee ko luɓaaɗe (Arab e Latin) ADLaM kanum ene wiyee ko Fulɓe penti ɗum. Tinndi e daari ene keewi e holno ɗee alkule pentiraa. Arii e jaŋtawol wonnde sukaaɓe ɗiɗo fentuɓe ɗe ɓee, Abdullaay e Ibraahiima puɗɗi hettude alkule ɗee ko taw heen gooto ene yahra e duuɗi 14, goɗɗo oo kanum ko duuɓi sappo (10) tan yahratnoo he ngaan saanga. Ene fillo ngoo haaliri, sukaaɓe ɓee ene njiyatnoo yimɓe ene ngara to baaba maɓɓe ene ngaddi ɓataakeeji mum en binndiraaɗi alkule ajami, yoo oon jannganɓe. Heen sahaaji so baaba maɓɓe joɗɗini ɗoon ɓataakeeji mum ɓe kocca ɓe ngona e taraade. Caggal ndeɓe teskii wonnde alkule ajami ɗe baaba maɓɓe huwtortoo ɗe ngonaa newiiɗe janngude sabu majje ŋakkeede woon e hitooji Pulaar. Waɗi sahaa ɓe laaɓndii baaba maɓɓe ko waɗi Fulɓe ene kuwtoroo alkule Arabu, yalla Fulɓe ngalaa binndol koye mum en na? “Ko alkule Arabu ɗee tan ngoni binndol men,” baabiraaɗo o jaabiiɓe. Kono sukaaɓe ɓee ngool jaabawol yonaani ɗum en, ɓe piɓi ko maɓe pentana Fulɓe alkule ɗe njeyani ko’e mum en. Waɗti so ɓe ngummitii ma duɗal tan ɓe uddoo nder suudu kamɓe ɗiɗo e ɓe ndiida tan haa ɗoɓe kawri fof ɓe njowondira wonnde yoo ɗuum won alkula kadi ɓe ndokka ɗum hito. Ko noon ɓe ngollorii haɓe tafi alkule 28 e limanɗe sappo, caggal ɗuum ɓe ɓeydi heen alkule jeegom (6) goɗɗe ngam haɓe mbaawa winndude kelme jiggaaɗe.Hono no binndol Arabu ni, ADLaM ne fuɗɗortoo ko ñaamo faya nano.

Ndɓe ngayni fentude alkule ɗee nde ɓe ngadii janngin’de ko banndi maɓɓe dewbo. Ndeɓe kaalani baaba maɓɓe wonnde ɓe pentii alkule kese baawɗe winndude pulaar, baaba maɓɓe ŋoongɗinaani ɓe. Ngam ƴeewndaade ɓe e jaribaade mbele ko ɓe kolli ɗum ko huunde waawnde naftoreede o noddi gooto he maɓɓe o teeldi e mum o rokki ɗum konnguɗi pulaar yoo oon wiindan mo. Nde oon winndi o noddi keddiiɗo o e teelal yoo ar jannganamo ko goɗɗo oo winndunoo ko, oon janngi o fami kisan ko ngoonga ɓe tafii alkule kese. Ɗuum wonnoo ko gila 1989 taw e ɓe njannga to duɗe les-lese e hakkundeeje.

Hannde kamɓe ɗiɗo kala Abdullaay e Ibraahiima Bari, ɓe nguuri ko he Dowlaaji Dentuɗi Amerik, caggal nde ɓe ɓaari to Jaaɓihaaɗtirde Guinee ɓe njokkitoyi jaŋdeeji maɓɓe Amerik. Gila ndeen e ɓe ndarii no ɗe alkule nguurdata kuwtoree he kala ɗo Fulɓe ngoni. Ɓe cippiraama haa alkule ɗee naatnaama he Unicode kadi Microsoft ne addii heen balla mum, nana liggondira heen he hettooɓe (designers) ngam tafde alkule (fonts/polices) baawɗe huwtoreede he windows e office ɗe ɓe inniri “Ebrima” baawɗe yahdude e ADLaM e alkule goɗɗe Afriknaaje.

ADLaM ene yaaji hannde he nder Guinee kadi nana saroo to Nigeria e leyɗe Fulɓe goɗɗe haa e caggal Afrik, ko wayno Amerik.

One comment

  • ŋ Ŋ Ƴ ƴ ñ Ɓ ɓ Ɗ ɗ
    Musidɗo tedduɗo a jaa, ndee winndannde maa nde haaluɗaa he mum binndiin pulaar, wonii winndannde yooɗnde e yaajunde sanne, ko nii tigi yeewtere ganndo wayata.
    Min ko he gine Konaakiri mi jeyaa, ko mi winndiyanke pulaar, miɗo jogii defte tati ɗe mi winndi: deftere tewro/taro, defte ɗiɗi selluka 1nre e 2ɓre, kannje fow ko he Pulaar / Fulfude ɗe winnda, kadi ko alkule laten ɗe winndiraa, ko mi jannginoowo Pulaar / Fulfude waɗii duuɓI, meɗen sinci (sosi) duɗe e pedle, meɗen yuɓɓondiri e tabital pulaaku winndere to bannge jannde e pinal golle amen yiyaa he ndeer leydi hee no feewi e kadi meɗen nootaa sanne maasha Allah!.
    Kono min miɗo jogii ngaanumma; bannge renndo fulɓe, hiɗe yiɗi waɗugol galaaɗi (luural) he nder renndo hee, tawa wonaa ko nafata en, si wonaa ɗum ko honno binndi tati walla ko ɓuri ɗum wawetee winndireede ɗemngal gootal? ɗuum waawaa wonde, si wonaa hino leeltina en tun he ƴellitaare men, si wonaa alkule laten ɗen yonii en ko janngiren Pulaar ngam heewude golle waɗaaɗe he majje gila ɗe fuɗɗaa janngireede Pulaar, e ngam newanaaɗe mo kala, e yahduɗe e aduna on, haa arti he sukaaɓe men wonuɓe he ekkolaaji (due) leyɗeele men.
    On jaaraama.

    Like

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